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30-07-2008
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Born: Norman David Levinson in Noblesville, Indiana, 20 April 1900. Education: Studied illustration at Parsons School of Design, New York, 1919; fashion design at Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, New York, 1920-22. Career: Costume designer, Paramount Pictures, Long Island, New York, 1922-23; theatrical costume designer, 1924-28; designer, Hattie Carnegie, New York, 1928-40; partner/designer, Traina-Norell company, New York, 1941-60; director, Norman Norell, New York, 1960-72. Exhibitions: Norman Norell retrospective, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 1972. Awards: Neiman Marcus award, Dallas, Texas, 1942; Coty American Fashion Critics award, 1943, 1951, 1956, 1958, 1966; Parsons medal for distinguished achievement, 1956; Sunday Times International Fashion award, London, 1963; City of New York Bronze Medallion, 1972. Honorary Doctor of Fine Arts, Pratt Institute, 1962. Died: 25 October 1972, in New York.

Simple, well-made clothes that would last and remain fashionable for many years became the hallmark of Norman Norell, the first American designer to win the respect of Parisian couturiers. He gained a reputation for flattering design while Traina, whose well-heeled clientéle appreciated the snob appeal of pared-down day clothes and dramatic eveningwear. From his early years with Hattie Carnegie, Norell learned all about meticulous cut, fit, and quality fabrics. Regular trips to Paris exposed him to the standards of couture that made French clothes the epitome of high fashion. Norell had the unique ability to translate the characteristics of couture into American ready-to-wear. He did inspect each model garment individually, carefully, in the tradition of a couturier, and was just as demanding in proper fabrication and finish. The prices of "Norells," especially after he went into business on his own, easily rivaled those of Paris creations, but they were worth it. The clothes lasted, and their classicism made them timeless.

Certain characteristics of Norell's designs were developed early on and remained constant throughout his career. Wool jersey shirtwaist dresses with demure bowed collars were a radical departure from splashy floral daydresses of the 1940s. World War II restrictions on yardages and materials coincided with Norell's penchant for spare silhouettes, echoing his favorite period, the 1920s. Long before Paris was promoting the chemise in the 1950s, Norell was offering short, straight, low-waisted shapes during the war years. For evening, Norell looked to the flashy glamor of his days designing costumes for vaudeville.

Glittering paillettes, which were not rationed, would be splashed on evening skirts—paired with sweater tops for comfort in unheated rooms—or on coats. Later, the lavish use of all-out glamor sequins evolved into Norell's signature shimmering "mermaid" evening dresses, formfitting, round-necked and short-sleeved. The round neckline, plain instead of the then-popular draped, became one of the features of Norell's designs of which he was most proud. "I hope I have helped women dress more simply," was his goal. He used revealing bathing suit necklines for evening as well, with sable trim or jeweled buttons for contrast. Variations on these themes continued throughout the years, even after trousersuits became a regular part of Norell's repertoire.

Striking in their simplicity, Norell suits would skim the body, making the wearer the focus of attention rather than the clothes. Daytime drama came from bold, clear colors such as red, black, beige, bright orange, or pale blue, punctuated by large, plain contrasting buttons. Stripes, dots, and checks were the only patterns, although Norell was credited with introducing leopard prints in the 1940s, again, years before they became widespread in use. Norell's faithful clients hailed his clothes as some of the most comfortable they had ever worn.

Early exposure to men's clothing in Norell's father's haberdashery business no doubt led to the adaptation of the menswear practicality. An outstanding example was the sleeveless jacket over a bowed blouse and slim woolen skirt, developed after Norell became aware of the comfort of his own sleeveless vest worn for work. As in men's clothing, pockets and buttons were always functional. Norell created a sensation with the culotte-skirted wool flannel day suit with which he launched his own independent label in 1960. His sophisticated clientéle welcomed the ease of movement allowed by this daring design. As the 1960s progressed Norell presented another masculine-influenced garment, the jumpsuit, but in soft or luxurious fabrics for evening. Just as durability and excellent workmanship were integral to the best menswear, so they were to Norell's. Men's dress was traditionally slow to change; Norell stayed with his same basic designs, continually refining them over the years. He developed the idea that there should be only one center of interest in an outfit, and designed only what he liked.

What he liked was frequently copied, both domestically and overseas. The short, flippy, gored, ice skating skirt was copied by Paris. Aware of piracy in the fashion business, Norell offered working sketches of the culotte suit free of charge to the trade to ensure that at least his design would be copied correctly. This integrity earned him a place as the foremost American designer of his time. Unlike most ready-to-wear that would be altered at the last moment for ease of manufacture, no changes were allowed after Norell had approved a garment. His impeccable taste was evident not only in the clothes, but in his simple life: meals at Schrafft's and Hamburger Heaven, quiet evenings at home, sketching in his modern duplex apartment, and unpublicized daily visits to assist fashion design students at Parsons School of Design.

As the designer whose reputation gained new respect for the Seventh Avenue garment industry, Norell was the first designer to receive the Coty Award, and the first to be elected to the Coty Award Hall of Fame. True to his innate integrity, he attempted to return his third Winnie award when he learned that judging was done without judges having actually seen designers' collections. Norell promoted American fashion as founder and president of the Council of Fashion Designers of America, but also by giving fledgling milliners their start in his black-tie, special event fashion shows. Halston and Adolfo designed hats for Norell, for, as in couture, Norell insisted upon unity of costume to include accessories.

As the "Dean of American Fashion," Norell was the first to have his name on a dress label, and the first to produce a successful American fragrance, Norell, with a designer name. Some of his clothes can be seen in the films, such as The Sainted Devil, That Touch of Mink and The Wheeler Dealers. Show business personalities and social leaders throughout the country treasured their "Norells" for years.

—Therese Duzinkiewicz Baker
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Cocktail dress, 1961
Norman Norell (American, 1900–1972)
Black wool crepe


Though the cocktail party of the 1950s graced middle- and upper-class residences, creating a more prominent market for women's cocktail clothing and accessories in New York department stores, the "Junior" or "Miss" collections of these retail giants developed and promoted lines of cocktail clothing as well. Sororities and college clubs began celebrating the cocktail hour by the latter half of the decade and, modeling their aesthetic after the twenty-something actresses in films such as Cat on a Hot Tin Roof (1958) and Breakfast at Tiffany's (1961), female collegians identified their own garments for cocktailing, the most popular of these the "little black dress."

Norman Norell, who, by the early 1960s, had become one of the most globally respected New York fashion designers by perfecting a classic silhouette complete with couture-quality finishing details and exquisite paillette and bugle-bead embroidery techniques, created simply tailored evening sheaths and impeccably cut day suits that reflected both a refined mature sensibility and a youthful spirit. This Norell "little black dress" is the quintessential cocktail sheath of the early 1960s, championing a playful leisurely aesthetic while still propagating a certain formality inherent in cocktail dressing. Designers like Ceil Chapman and Nettie Rosenstein were creating beautiful late day and evening dresses for the American market, but Norman Norell had his eye on the international scene; he combined the American invention of "day-to-evening" dressing with the subtlety and simplicity of French early evening garb. Priced comparably to the French couture, the visionary Norell dress became both the immortal symbol of mid-century bourgeois sociability and the champion of youthful flirtation.
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Dress, 1972

Evening; bronze-colored silk jersey, sequinned; floor length shirtdress; stand up open collar; darts on back of neck; long front shoulder dart; bodice and skirt placket center front opening with four sequin covered buttons and snap fastener closure; bound buttonholes; long set-in sleeves with two-button cuffs; slightly eased bodice; attached wide belt; slightly eased straight skirt.
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Norell Mermaid Dress
American, 1965
Purple silk jersey, with allover sequin decoration, long tight sleeves, band neck, demi-empire waist, labeled: Clair #405.
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Norell Mermaid Dress
American, 1967
Bottle green, with allover sequins, long sweater sleeves, band neckline.
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Norman Norell beaded silk crepe evening dress, c.1968

The designer let his signature mermaid theme evolve into a more figure-forgiving shape. Norell retained the high neckline, overall beading, and lean hip-hugging shape, but expanded the bodice with fabulous batwing sleeves. The covered-up look is broken only by deep figure-revealing slits: one in the front skirt and the other in the bodice back. The contour waistline gracefully dips from slightly below the bust to the waist in back.

This glamorous dress is fashioned from black silk crepe covered with black glass bugle beads. The dress is unlined, allowing the weight of the fabric to cling to the figure. The skirt and sleeves close with zippers. The batwing sleeves are cut-in-one with the bodice.
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Norman Norell wool coat, c.1965-1970

With its strong color and pure lines, this knockout bubblegum pink wool coat, minimally accented with black buttons, showcases Norell's artful simplicity. The knee-length, belted coat features a wide flat collar and patch pockets. The coat is lined with matching pink taffeta.

Norell showed that great design could also be simple design. He avoided extraneous detail, which detracted from the main design idea. As Vogue wrote in 1966, "One coat is all he believes in, and one coat is all he shows—and it's enough."
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Norell wool double knit dress, 1960s

Fashioned from bubblegum-pink wool double knit, the dress is comfortable and easy to wear. The scooped neckline is cut low in front, and even lower in back, adding pizzazz to an otherwise tailored design.

The dress is totally lined with matching silk crepe. The patch pockets and wide belt are casually relaxed. The hand stitched zipper, hand finishing, and self-bound buttonholes are details expected on a couture garment.
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Norell Topper
American, 1967
Shocking pink double faced wool, with four patch pockets and curved shirttail hem
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Norman Norell Black Afternoon Dress and Suit
American, 1963 and 1962
Comprising a wool crepe day dress, sleeveless with bateau neck, bias bodice, softly gathered skirt with unusual side pockets, labeled: Norman Norell/New York, and a wool crepe day suit with bolero jacket with shawl collar and softly gathered skirt
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Norman Norell Late Day Ensemble
American, 1965
Black and white abstract spotted print silk, with fitted overblouse and softly gathered skirt
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Norman Norell Afternoon Polka Dot Ensemble and Afternoon Suit
American, 1965
The first a yellow shantung gazar ensemble with embroidered black polka dots, the sleeveless dress with bateau neckline, fitted bodice and black sash, the jacket with long fitted sleeves and standing bias collar; the afternoon suit, of sunflower yellow linen, the demi fitted sleeveless bodice with bateau neckline and soft skirt, the double breasted jacket with black beaded buttons
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Norman Norell Late Day Ensemble
American, 1965
Black silk gazar with cream embroidered daisies allover, the dress with matching raglan sleeved cardigan jacket and satin tied waist, labeled: Norman Norell/New York.
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Norman Norell Sportif Day Suit and Coat Dress
American, 1969
Tangerine wool jersey suit, single breasted jacket with jewel neck, patch pockets, patent leather belt and black shiny buttons down the side, slender skirt, labeled: Deborah, the tangerine coat dress, of asymmetrical design, with long sleeves, jewel neckline and buttoned from left shoulder to hem, labeled: Norell.
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Norman Norell Fire Red Cocktail Dress
1960s
The red silk long sleeve shirtdress, with sash, having large rhinestone buttons from collar to hem, labeled: Norman Norell for Bonwit Teller.
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